Featured Children’s Health Articles
From the EHP Editors
May focuses on both asthma and air pollution—both of which are significant for children’s health and are often interconnected. With the prevalence of childhood asthma increasing over the past decade, the authors set out to explore whether air pollution may be a contributing factor. Specifically, they investigated the relationship between airway inflammation, as represented by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and the oxidative burden of the air pollution they were exposed to. The study included children from Montreal, Canada, who lived near two oil refineries. The children carried monitors in backpacks for 10 consecutive days to measure their exposure to PM2.5, with detailed and repeated follow-up producing 675 measurements. The authors found that the oxidative burden of air pollution was associated with airway inflammation. They also noted that use of corticosteroids may reduce the FeNO response to oxidative burden, while the presence of allergies may exacerbate it.
Caitlin L. Maikawa, Scott Weichenthal, Amanda J. Wheeler, Nina A. Dobbin, Audrey Smargiassi, Greg Evans, Ling Liu, Mark S. Goldberg, and Krystal J. Godri Pollitt
Ulrike Gehring, Olena Gruzieva, Raymond M. Agius, Rob Beelen, Adnan Custovic, Josef Cyrys, Marloes Eeftens, Claudia Flexeder, Elaine Fuertes, Joachim Heinrich, Barbara Hoffmann, Johan C. de Jongste, Marjan Kerkhof, Claudia Klümper, Michal Korek, Anna Mölter, Erica S. Schultz, Angela Simpson, Dorothea Sugiri, Magnus Svartengren, Andrea von Berg, Alet H. Wijga, Göran Pershagen, and Bert Brunekreef
From the EHP Editors
Lung function is an indicator of respiratory health, especially when evaluated in children, who are still developing. Gehring et al. analyzed data from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), here comprising birth cohort studies from five European countries, to assess children’s lung function in relation to their exposure to air pollution. They estimated annual average air pollution levels at the children’s birth and current addresses and analyzed standard lung function measures taken when the children were 6–8 years old. The large sample of 5,921 children from the combined cohorts plus specific within-cohort data provide extensive support for the association between air pollution and a decline in lung function. See below for additional articles on air pollution and asthma in children.
Julia R. Barrett
Meng Wang, Ulrike Gehring, Gerard Hoek, Menno Keuken, Sander Jonkers, Rob Beelen, Marloes Eeftens, Dirkje S. Postma, and Bert Brunekreef
Michael Jerrett, Ketan Shankardass, Kiros Berhane, W. James Gauderman, Nino Künzli, Edward Avol, Frank Gilliland, Fred Lurmann, Jassy N. Molitor, John T. Molitor, Duncan C. Thomas, John Peters, and Rob McConnell
Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, Amit U. Raysoni, Wen-Whai Li, Fernando Holguin, Brent A. Johnson, Silvia Flores Luevano, Jose Humberto Garcia and Jeremy A. Sarnat
Guang-Hui Dong, Kuan-Yen Tung, Ching-Hui Tsai, Miao-Miao Liu, Da Wang, Wei Liu, Yi-He Jin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Yungling Leo Lee, and Pau-Chung Chen
Ling Liu, Raymond Poon, Li Chen, Anna-Maria Frescura, Paolo Montuschi, Giovanni Ciabattoni, Amanda Wheeler, and Robert Dales
Shao Lin, Xiu Liu, Linh H. Le, and Syni-An Hwang
Jennifer K. Mann, John R. Balmes, Tim A. Bruckner, Kathleen M. Mortimer, Helene G. Margolis, Boriana Pratt, S. Katharine Hammond, Frederick W. Lurmann and Ira B. Tager
Nicky Pieters, Gudrun Koppen, Martine Van Poppel, Sofie De Prins, Bianca Cox, Evi Dons, Vera Nelen, Luc Int Panis, Michelle Plusquin, Greet Schoeters, and Tim S. Nawrot
Flavia Orazzo, Luigi Nespoli, Kazuhiko Ito, Davide Tassinari, Daniela Giardina, Maurizio Funis, Alessandra Cecchi, Chiara Trapani, Gisella Forgeschi, Massimo Vignini, Luana Nosetti, Sabrina Pigna, Antonella Zanobetti
Shunqin Wang, Jinliang Zhang, Xiaodong Zeng, Yimin Zeng, Shengchun Wang, and Shuyun Chen
Kelly Moore, Romain Neugebauer, Fred Lurmann, Jane Hall, Vic Brajer, Sianna Alcorn, and Ira Tager
Olena Gruzieva, Simon Kebede Merid, Anna Gref, Ashwini Gajulapuri, Nathanaël Lemonnier, Stéphane Ballereau, Bruna Gigante, Juha Kere, Charles Auffray, Erik Melén, and Göran Pershagen
Nadia N. Hansel, Patrick N. Breysse, Meredith C. McCormack, Elizabeth C. Matsui, Jean Curtin-Brosnan, D’Ann L. Williams, Jennifer L. Moore, Jennifer L. Cuhran, and Gregory B. Diette
Gerald McGwin Jr., Jeffrey Lienert and John I. Kennedy Jr.
Olivier Humblet, Ledif Grisell Diaz-Ramirez, John R. Balmes, Susan M. Pinney, and Robert A. Hiatt
Laura Perez, Fred Lurmann, John Wilson, Manuel Pastor, Sylvia J. Brandt, Nino Künzli, and Rob McConnell
Children’s Health Resources
• Children’s Health Collections (2010–2015): all research, news, and editorials related to exposures, outcomes, and methodologies on children’s environmental health.
• Children’s Health section (NIEHS): the institute’s efforts and research goals in children’s environmental health.
• Instituting Smoke-Free Public Housing (regulation)
• NIEHS Children's Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) provides laboratory and data analysis resources for researchers in children’s health exposures.
• NIEHS Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) will focus on environmental influences on health outcomes and will include more than 35 U.S. cohort studies.
• NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers: research in all aspects of environmental exposures and outcomes in children.
• Partnerships for Environmental Public Health (PEPH, NIEHS) “a network of scientists, community members, educators, healthcare providers, public health officials, and policymakers who share the goal of increasing the impact of environmental public health research at the local, regional, and national level.”
• Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSUs): a network of physicians throughout 10 U.S. regions specializing in environmental conditions that influence reproductive and children’s health.
• President’s Task Force on the Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children (Executive Order 13045): intended to maintain government policies, standards, and programs to ensure the health and safety of children.
• Protecting Children’s Environmental Health (U.S. EPA): fact sheets, information on policy, health care, and related science, as well as various other web resources.
• Requirements for Notification, Evaluation and Reduction of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Federally Owned Residential Property and Housing Receiving Federal Assistance; Response to Elevated Blood Lead Levels (regulation)
• U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Children’s Health Protection: regulation, research, and community programs that address environmental threats to children.
• U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Lead contains information about lead regulations, testing for lead levels, health effects, at-risk populations, and more.
• WHO Collaborating Centres for Children's Environmental Health: research centers around the world, including information about targeted exposures, cohort studies, and publications.
• Children’s Environmental Health Institute (CEHI): an alliance of scientists, medical professionals, and advocates whose goal is “to identify, develop and promote solutions to improve children’s environmental health through scientific research, environmental education and public policy.”
• Children’s Environmental Health Network (CEHN): coordinates a variety of stakeholders around multidisciplinary research, education, policy, and public health awareness related to children’s health.
• Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE): an international partnership whose mission is to share scientific research, promote collaboration among constituencies, and facilitate actions to improve health.
• Healthy Schools Network: advocates for child-safe standards in school design, construction, siting, product purchasing, and potential exposures.
• International Network on Children’s Health, Environment and Safety (INCHES): an international organization that addresses environmental exposures and health outcomes in children as well as related policies.
• International Society for Children’s Health and the Environment (ISCHE): mission is “to synthesize and translate the science of children’s environmental health to physicians, public health officials, policymakers and parents via position papers, technical reports and testimony.”
• National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF): promotes environmental education and training, with a particular focus on children and other vulnerable populations.
• Project TENDR: Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks: scientists, health professionals, and advocates collaborate to investigate links between environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders, learning disorders, and other neurodevelopmental problems.
• SafeRoutes (National Center for Safe Routes to School): details on health and safety within the community as children walk to school: effects of income disparities, types of built environments, and infrastructure.
• A Story of Health (UCSF Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit, ATSDR, CHE, OEHHA, SEHN)
• America's Children and the Environment, 3rd Edition (U.S. EPA)
• Assessing and Managing Children at Primary Health-care Facilities to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in the Context of the Double Burden of Malnutrition: Updates for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) (World Health Organization)
• Change Is in the Air: An Action Guide for Establishing Smoke-Free Public Housing and Multifamily Properties (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)
• Childhood Development, Resilience and the Environment (Western States PEHSU)
• Children’s Environmental Health Day: CEH Day Proclamation Advocacy Toolkit (Children's Environmental Health Network)
• Children at Risk: Gaps in State Lead Screening Policies (Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families)
• Children’s Environmental Health Indicators: A Summary & Assessment (Children’s Environmental Health Network)
• Children’s Environmental Health Research Roadmap (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)
• Creating Healthier Generations: A Look at the 10 Years of the Federal Safe Routes to School Program (National Center for Safe Routes to School)
• Don’t Pollute My Future: The Impact of the Environment on Children’s Health (World Health Organization)
• E-Cigarette Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon General (U.S. Public Health Service)
• Eliminating Lead Risks in Schools and Child Care Facilities: A United and Urgent Call to Action for Children (Children’s Environmental Health Network, Healthy Schools Network, Learning Disabilities Association)
• Engaging Diverse Partners: Strategies to Address Environmental Public Health: Meeting Report (Partnerships for Environmental Public Health, NIEHS)
• Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds: Status Report (U.S. EPA, CDC/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Consumer Product Safety Commission)
• Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Vol 1 and Vol 2 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
• Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): Guidance to Support Country Implementation (World Health Organization)
• Health Effects of Low-Level Lead (National Toxicology Program)
• How Close are We to #ZeroHunger? The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
• Inheriting a Sustainable World? Atlas on Children’s Health and the Environment (World Health Organization)
• Keeping the Vector Out: Housing Improvements for Vector Control and Sustainable Development (World Health Organization)
• Key Federal Programs to Reduce Childhood Lead (President’s Task Force on the Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children)
• Nutrition in the WHO African Region (World Health Organization)
• PCBs in Schools (Western States PEHSU)
• Pediatric Environmental Health Toolkit (PEHT) mobile application (Western States PEHSU)
• Reaching the Every Newborn National 2020 Milestones: Country Progress, Plans and Moving Forward (World Health Organization UNICEF)
• Rebuild Healthy Homes: Guide to Post-disaster Restoration for a Safe and Healthy Home (Department of Housing and Urban Development)
• Recycling Used Lead-Acid Batteries: Health Considerations (World Health Organization)
• The Cost of the Double Burden of Malnutrition: Social and Economic Impact (World Food Programme)
• The Neglected Link: Effects of Climate Change and Environmental Degradation on Child Labor (Child Labour Report 2017; Terre des Hommes International Federation)
• The State of Food Security and Nutrition in Europe and Central Asia (Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations)
• The State of the World’s Children 2016 (UNICEF)
• Tobacco-free Generations: Protecting Children from Tobacco in the WHO European Region (World Health Organization)
• Towards Healthy Schools: Reducing Risks to Children (Healthy Schools Network) (Healthy Schools Network)
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Events of Interest
1–31 May 2018: Air Pollution and Children’s Health Month (Children’s Environmental Health Network)
24–25 May 2018 (meeting): ICEHR 2018: 20th International Conference on Environmental Health and Remediation (Prague, Czechoslovakia)
27–30 May 2018 (meeting): PPTOX VI Conference (Tórshavn, Faroe Islands)
27–29 June 2018 (meeting): International Network on Children’s Health, Environment and Safety (INCHES) Conference (Seoul, Korea)
26–30 August 2018 (meeting): ISES-ISEE 2018 Joint Annual Meeting (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
11 October 2018: Children’s Environmental Health Day (Children’s Environmental Health Network).
30 October–1 November 2018: Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health (World Health Organization Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland).
10–14 November 2018 (meeting): American Public Health Association Annual Meeting and Expo (San Diego, CA).
17–18 November 2018 (meeting): Thirty-First Annual Infectious Diseases in Children Symposium (New York, NY)
6–8 December 2018 (meeting): Excellence In Pediatrics (Prague, Czechoslovakia)